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New UNECE Report about the state of multi-family apartment buildings in Armenia is out

Recently, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) published three in-depth national studies focusing on the state of residential building stock in Armenia, Kyrgyzstan, and the Republic of Moldova.

The UNECE was set up in 1947 and it is one of five regional commissions of the United Nations. UNECE's major aim is to promote pan-European economic integration. UNECE includes 56 member states in Europe, North America and Asia and over 70 international professional organizations and other non-governmental organizations take part in and help UNECE achieve its objectives.

As a multilateral platform, UNECE helps in achieving greater economic integration and cooperation among its member states, as well as it promotes sustainable development and economic prosperity.

Out of all sectors of economic activity, the buildings sector has the largest potential for cost-effective improvement in energy efficiency and emissions reductions.

To help capitalize on this potential, UNECE has developed the three studies under the project “Enhancing National Capacities to Develop and Implement Energy Efficiency Standards for Buildings in the UNECE Region”.

The purpose of the study for Armenia

The "National study and detailed gap analysis between the performance objectives of the Framework Guidelines for Energy Efficiency Standards in Buildings and implementation of current building energy efficiency standards in Armenia," is a report analyzing the energy performance of buildings, implementation of current building energy efficiency standards and providing country-specific recommendations to bridge gaps and enhance national capacity to develop and implement energy efficiency standards for buildings.

The main purpose is to highlight the state of multi-family apartment buildings (MFABs) in Armenia, especially concerning their energy performance. The report also includes some other important elements, such as the status of legislature and audits regarding energy performance in Armenia, as well as many other relevant policy and project highlights that succeeded in uplifting the situation in Armenia.

Important findings

The national study in Armenia revealed that buildings are one of the major sources of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). 18 per cent of the total GHG emissions is from fuel consumption in the residential buildings. The share of the residential buildings in total final energy consumption is 38 per cent. At the same time, the building sector presents significant energy saving potential, which can be realized through the effective use of modern energy efficient technologies and practices, reinforcement of robust certification systems for energy efficient buildings, and energy efficiency lending by international and local financial institutions. The Government of Armenia has put efforts into effective enforcement of recently adopted legislation in the building sector. Some relevant technical regulations and standards have also been adopted to improve the effectiveness of the whole regulatory system in the building sector.

The report itself outlined the major deficiencies of MFABs, as well as some recommendations that should be taken into consideration, not only when it comes to the renovation of energy inefficient buildings built in the second half of the 20th century, but also when it comes to relevant legislation, maintenance, and cooperation between the major parties interested in improving Armenia's situation. In a major move, the report also drew attention to the fact that Armenia should be inspired by the way other post-socialist states dealt with these buildings, such as Czechia or Poland with their establishment of associations of housing unit owners, which centralized all the relevant decision-making, thus making renovation and upgrades easier.

As an example, energy audits of multiple residential buildings proposed a standard set of measures which can bring to as much as 65 per cent energy consumption reduction:

A success for Habitat for Humanity Armenia

We are very glad to see Habitat for Humanity Armenia's long lasting efforts mentioned in the document, where UNECE recognizes their hard-work in partnership with universal credit organizations, with whom Habitat Armenia implemented housing microfinance projects that helped low- and middle-income families receive loans from financial institutions to improve their living conditions. These families used the loans to renovate and repair their homes, improve energy efficiency, and to create access to renewable energy. Through its housing microfinance projects, Habitat Armenia also provides technical assistance to families and partner financial institutions through training programs, construction technical advice and informational brochures. Other programs involve renovation of common areas of residential buildings, residential energy efficiency for low-income households and access to renewable and efficient energy in the municipalities of Vayk and Spitak.

Apart from these activities, Habitat Armenia has long been working on reforming the legislation on the management of multi-apartment buildings. The Armenian government reformed a law according to Habitat Armenia's recommendations in late 2020, which had been advocated for since 2015. According to this law, each building shall have a separate bank account for the management of its funds, which will increase the overall transparency of the fund management for each building. For more information, you can check this blog.

Conclusion

Armenia has a considerable untapped potential to improve the energy efficiency of its buildings, but several barriers and challenges must be addressed if notable progress is to be achieved in the coming decades.

In some cases, deep renovation is not possible in only one step, mostly because of the high initial investment. International collaboration is likely to remain the key for ensuring both the short-term success and the long-term viability of Armenia’s efforts. Best EU practices, already applied is some countries, show that renovation can be a long process that allows measures to be done step-by-step to maximize the final effect and reduce the energy consumption as much as possible.

As the report summarizes, Armenia still has a long way to go when it comes to energy efficient renovation. Despite this, the work that has already been done in rejuvenating the building stock makes a case for any future projects, as there definitely is a need and will to do more. The only thing that remains is to get the work done.

Habitat for Humanity Armenia (HFH Armenia) has recorded the first success in its advocacy efforts in reforming the legislation on residential buildings management in Armenia. In December 2020, the Government of Armenia approved “Decision on Bank Account Opening and Servicing Procedure” for the implementation of mandatory and other payments set by the “Law on Residential Buildings Management”. What does it mean in practice? Each building shall have a separate bank account for the management of its funds, which will increase the overall transparency of the fund management for each building. In addition to this, by the decision of the homeowners assembly, they can set up a separate reserve fund account for each building to be used to cover the expenses related to the unforeseen accidental renovation works in the building, as well as other expenses related to the operation and betterment of the buildings.

Until the end of the last year, Armenian homeowners had been suffering from the lack of proper and systemic regulation on maintenance of residential buildings and its commonly owned shared spaces. The recommendation proposed by HFH Armenia had been advocated since 2015, accompanied by many side events and activities. Let’s see together what stands behind this housing problem by looking at the history of its residential buildings maintenance system, its weaknesses and negative impacts and the benefits resulting from a successful policy change that has come into power just at the end of 2020.

Buildings in Yerevan, Armenia

Buildings in Yerevan, Armenia

 

History of the residential multi-unit buildings maintenance in Armenia

Before 1990, Armenia was part of the USSR, the communist block of countries. The collective housing dwellings under the communist era were both state-owned and state-managed. In practice, this meant that the state was not only the owner of the residential multi-unit buildings but it was also responsible for the maintenance of these buildings. State building maintenance companies were in charge of these maintenance services and works.

In Armenia, with the fall of the communist regime, a huge wave of privatization took place and transformed not only the economic system but also the housing ownership structures. Due to this process,  the ownership of the housing stock went from the hands of the state to the hands of the homeowners who formed homeowner associations or other management bodies for the management and maintenance of the buildings. However, due to the lack of proper management of the buildings, low collection rates and certain gaps in the respective legislation, the technical condition of multi-apartment buildings has been continuously deteriorating.

In numerous countries of the former Soviet Union, the former state building maintenance companies turned into private entities and continued with the maintenance services for these buildings, reporting to the newly established homeowner associations consisting of private owners of housing units. Each building established its own bank account and was in charge of its own financing, accompanied by the assistance and services provided by the private maintenance companies.

However, in Armenia, the legislation did not set requirements for opening and maintaining a bank account for each building separately, which often created uncertainty in the minds of homeowners regarding the use of their funds set by mandatory norms.

Hence, lacking regulation and rules on the responsibilities and competencies of buildings’ management bodies, and lack of loyalty of homeowners towards the management body of their building resulted in a rather unsystematic collection of money. This became the main issue to the actual maintenance of the Armenian residential multi-unit building stock.

 

Escaping the ineffective system

HFH Armenia identified this issue and started to develop recommendations that would solve the problem of misfunctioning financing and capacities within the home-owner associations, their position and their role in the system. They referred to the need of specifying minimum mandatory norms for management, maintenance and exploitation of the multi-unit housing stock and the establishment of the control system improvement mechanisms. In this way, the implementation of mandatory norms and renovation works, maintenance and servicing would become more accessible for the homeowners.

HFH Armenia saw it essential to create a law that would make it mandatory to open a separate bank account for each building by the residential building management body. Thanks to this step, it would allow even for opening a savings account for each building managed. Therefore, a portion generated from maintenance fee collection for the maintenance fund could be transferred to this saving account and contribute to the overall financial stability of buildings’ owners.

The most significant result of such an action is making the residential building management bodies a reliable player, possessing its own finances and with the ability to manifest its spending and savings upon the need, or for example, when applying for a loan for reconstruction works.

Building in Yerevan, Armenia

Building in Yerevan, Armenia

Advocating for a change

In order to actually realize the proposed policy change, HFH Armenia has been working hard to advocate for these changes since 2015. The work has started with the support of the Visegrad Fund thanks to which the resources were allocated to the preparation of the primary research paper about the housing situation of residential multi-unit buildings in Armenia. Then, HFH Armenia developed and submitted a set of recommendations to the State Development Urban Committee, organized two roundtable discussions with the government representatives in Yerevan. The Armenian case was presented also during one of the roundtable discussions organized under the UN-Energy Summit in Yerevan in 2015. Moreover, they contributed to the REELIH regional conference organized by Habitat for Humanity International and USAID in Brussels in 2017 where several government representatives were present as well. Additionally, they participated in the three Working Group meetings set to develop the reform of the residential building management law in Armenia.

UN - Energy For Sustainable Development Forum 2015

UN-Energy For Sustainable Development Forum 2015

 

Benefitting citizens and local communities

With the change of the residential building management law, numerous benefits for the homeowners and their homeowner associations are coming. Thanks to the fact that each building, from now by law, has to have its own finances managed on a separate bank account, the process of maintenance works and renovation of the buildings becomes easier and more accessible. Among the main benefits are:

Before and After of muti-apartment building renovation

Before and After of muti-apartment building renovation

In Habitat for Humanity, we believe that for homeowner associations, mixed financing schemes are the best and most effective solutions for maintenance and renovation works of the commonly owned spaces of the buildings. The mixed financing consists of three elements:

The three mentioned ways of financing are only possible when the homeowner associations have direct power over their own resources. Thus, thanks to this policy change, the Armenian homeowner associations are becoming more stable, self-sufficient and in the end, fully-fledged market players.

 

Empowering communities and its common interests

Along with the work done in advocating for the change of the law on the national level, HFH Armenia has been working on a local level, too. As the current system resulted in huge mistrust in the maintenance companies, it was inevitable to start developing a sense of ownership between the flat-owners towards the shared space of their properties. This activity was done in order to develop trust among the owners and their deepened willingness to contribute to the funds and being supportive of the investment into their buildings once the law changes.

In this respect, HFH Armenia advocated for the creation of mechanisms for awareness-raising on housing stock energy efficiency. The prefabricated buildings that were built during the communist era are highly energy inefficient and have a further negative impact on people who spend a high amount of money on energy bills. Through the introduction of training courses related to housing stock energy efficiency in primary, and education programs in secondary, the citizens would become aware of their possibilities and motivated to invest in their buildings.

In 2019, as part of its awareness-raising activities, HFH Armenia has conducted training for homeowners on energy efficiency measures in the buildings. The post-training behavior change monitoring survey showed that 72% of respondents started saving energy in their apartments after participating in the training through:

This activity demonstrates the efficiency of trainings on the behavior change of the tenants towards a smarter use of energy at home and implementation of other energy-saving measures.

 

The fight is not at the end

It will take some time for the new law to fully bring its benefits as there appeared new challenges in the implementation process. Change in the payment system from cash to online brings about one of the biggest issues. It now requires homeowners to make non-cash payments directly to the bank account and most tenants simply do not pay, because there is no one going and knocking on their doors for collecting the fee, as they were used to in past. Moreover, especially pensioners are not used to going to banks to make payments, as well as they are not even aware of the possibilities of online payment methods. Hence, in the short run, the collection rate of maintenance fees has dropped but is expected to grow after the change is well communicated with the homeowners. HFH Armenia has already started discussions with the Yerevan Municipality to run awareness-raising campaigns to make the transition to the new payment method faster and smooth.

Yerevan Municipality Roundtable

Yerevan Municipality Roundtable

To add, it is necessary to create new, effective enforcement mechanisms for payments of mandatory fees, as the current one proves not to be that efficient. Therefore, as a next step, HFH Armenia has started advocating for having a better enforcement mechanism for mandatory payments via submitting its recommendation to the State Urban Development Committee.

The last remaining, and probably the biggest challenge, is the creation of the saving accounts for the buildings. Under the current law, the homeowners of the buildings have to create their basic bank accounts and store their funds there which allows them to have control of their spending in the first place. The additional saving accounts would give even more reliability to the homeowner associations, but unfortunately, this recommendation was accepted only as a voluntary and recommended action. HFH Armenia plans to further advocate to make the creation of the saving fund mandatory to ensure even more financial stability for the multi-unit buildings, as well as advocate for setting more efficient enforcement mechanisms towards the betterment of the collection of mandatory fees.

The Armenian advocacy success is proof that hard and systematic work and dedication can really make a change. Fingers crossed for HFH Armenia in their future work.


Find more information about HFH Armenia here.

Housing Europe, the European Federation of Public, Cooperative & Social Housing, has published the first comprehensive evidence-based analysis of the COVID-19 impact on housing in Europe. Being rich in facts, figures and timely information, the State of Housing in Europe 2021 Report provides its readers with insightful overview of the housing situation and its evolution across 21 countries during the Coronavirus pandemic. In this blog we aim to share some of the key messages of the Report with our readers while also highlighting one of the country profiles representing CEE Region - Armenia.

ABOUT THE PUBLICATION

The State of Housing in Europe 2021 is a comprehensive analysis of the current state of housing in Europe which explores the link between housing and health, examines the impact of COVID-19 on public, cooperative and social housing, maps out the recent developments in national and EU housing policies and analyzes the situation of 21 country profiles. It also synthetizes and reviews a growing body of literature, data and other useful evidence from (see below or Chapter 2 in the Report).

The Report has been done in collaboration with the Housing Europe Observatory, which is the research branch of Housing Europe responsible for identifying research needs and analyzing the key trends in the field of housing at the European level. This report is published on a bi-annual basis and serves as a great reference document in the housing sector.

The Report was launched online at the event organized by the Housing Europe where high-level experts from different EU institutions discussed the most pressing issues pertaining the housing sector at the moment. Moderated by Housing Europe Secretary General, Sorcha Edwards, the roundtable discussion hosted Kim Van Sparrentak (MEP and Rapporteur), Pedro Nuno Santos (Portuguese Minister for Infrastructure and Housing), Lucie Devoine (Deputy Head of Unit DG Employment, EC), Declan Costello (Deputy Director-General, DG ECFIN, EC) and Alessandro Rancati (from the Design for Policy at the New European Bauhaus, Joint Research Centre).

KEY MESSAGES OF THE REPORT

Critical Role of Housing: More Explicit Than Ever

The world at the juncture of the global health crisis required us to inevitably stay at our homes. Long-lasting housing crisis, however, has not made this possible for so many of us. As Laurent Ghekiere, Chair of Housing Europe Observatory, says

#StayAtHome has been easier said than done for a very large part of the EU population

Poor living conditions in the households or lack of housing have not only increased affected people´s chances of getting the virus but have also directly increased the risks of them dying.[1] The inadequate housing has demonstrably impacted people´s well-being, mental health, school and work performance. The pandemic has thus reinforced the importance of adequate and affordable housing for all and the need for addressing the rising inequalities as soon as possible.

Public, Cooperative and Social Housing: In the Loop

In addition to exploring the link between housing and health, including both physical and mental one, the Report observes the development of the housing sector with a special focus on the public, cooperative and social housing before and after the pandemic. The Housing Europe President, Bent Madsen, says that the mission of public, cooperative and social housing is to “factor in climate without pricing out people”. One of the findings positively reveals how public, social, and cooperative housing providers mobilized to support their tenants and communities so that they do not lose their homes. Nevertheless, there remain to persist many unfavorable realities caused by the long-lasting housing crisis that require more attention of the competent stakeholders.

The Key Issues Pertaining Housing Sector:

One of the most pressing ones, as the Report points out, is rising homelessness in the EU. Combined with trends of increasing housing prices and financialization penetrating the housing sector, this remains to be a great challenge. Collected evidence from a number of countries further suggests increasing demand for social housing - phenomenon expected only to increase in the near future. The energy performance of building and digitalization of housing sector have also become an issue.

Country profile of Armenia

Substantial part of the Housing Europe´s Report is dedicated to the selected 21 countries profiles. Among these, 3 chapters are dedicated to countries in Central and Eastern Europe: Czechia, Estonia, Slovenia and one chapter is dedicated to Armenia.

The impact of the pandemic in Armenia could be felt mostly in the construction and maintenance of the housing sector. As the Report points out, the overall construction activities in Armenia decreased by around 10 percentage points. What is more, out of this overall construction sector, provision of social housing constitutes only a very small share, although it belongs to one of the priorities of the National Social Housing Agency (ASBA). This fact can be explained by the specificity of the whole CEE region where majority of the residential building stock is co-owned by individual flat-owners.

Despite of high rates of housing availability, the need for housing in Armenia remains to be apparent, as the high rates can be easily explained by decreasing population, large share of empty dwellings, and persisting homelessness. Furthermore, there is significant group of people who are in need of better housing as their current one is in informal settlements or is simply unfit for human occupation.

With regards to the need for improving the existing housing stock´s conditions, the Housing Europe´s Report refers to HFHI´s findings about the inefficient energy insulations used in the collective residential housing units in Armenia which resulted in huge energy losses and made many low and middle-income families in Armenia spend 25 to 50% of their incomes only on utilities.

Sadly, the pandemic impact on Armenian households has been furthermore worsened by heightened political tensions and period of military hostilities, leaving many households exposed to significant challenges.

WHAT IS NEXT?

Against the immediate consequences and given the projections of the medium to long-term COVID-19 impact, the investment in social and affordable housing must clearly become a key priority for public policies and must constitute “a central pillar of economic recovery efforts”, claim the authors of the Report. Fiscal and monetary policies implemented by the EU to accommodate the COVID-19 impact together with its mandate to implement social rights, especially the right to access to social housing, should help favorable development of social and affordable housing in Europe.


[1] Supporting evidence reveals a 50% higher risk of coronavirus incidence and 42% higher risk of COVID-19 mortality with 5% increase of households with poor housing conditions.


Find the recording from the launch event here.

Find the full report here.

Find Housing Europe press release here.

PRESS RELEASE, ARMENIA

On July 14, 2020, Habitat for Humanity Armenia Foundation (Habitat Armenia) and "Agroleasing Leasing Credit Organization" LLC signed a partnership agreement which is aimed at

establishing a mechanism to facilitate the lending process for the renovation and energy efficiency improvement of residential buildings in Armenia.

In particular, the purpose of the partnership is to support the management bodies of residential buildings to renovate and improve energy efficiency in their buildings, including renovation of entrances, installation of energy efficient windows and doors, external thermal insulation of walls, modernization of lighting systems, etc. To facilitate the process of lending to management bodies of residential buildings, Habitat Armenia has set up a $50,000 guarantee fund. At the pilot phase of the project, it is planned to renovate at least 18 apartment buildings in line with the project criteria. The target beneficiaries of the project are the management bodies of residential buildings in Armenia, which will also be provided with technical assistance on renovating buildings and implementing energy efficient and energy saving measures.

The partnership is implemented within “Residential Energy Effciency for Low Income Households” (REELIH) project which is funded by USAID and co-funded and implemented by Habitat Armenia.

 “One of the most important prerequisites of the project implementation is the close cooperation of the residents and their willingness to take part in the project and regularly pay the mandatory fees. According to the results of the survey among homeowner associations that participated in the project, the level of comfort in the buildings has enhanced, energy efficiency has improved and the trust of the residents towards the homeowner associations has increased”,

said Varsenik Khloyan, Manager of REELIH project.

The project aims to improve the investment environment in Armenia related to residential energy efficiency,  develop and implement applicable financial models, develop the national institutional capacity, as well as establish a national platform for knowledge exchange and implementation of pilot projects.

 

According to Aram Mkhitaryan, Director of “Agroleasing Leasing Credit Organization,

there are a large number of Soviet-era buildings in Armenia that need renovation. The project is a good opportunity to renovate residential buildings in Armenia, while reducing energy costs and providing residents with more comfortable conditions.

Habitat Armenia has implemented projects directed at renovation and energy efficiency of residential buildings in Armenia since 2011. To date, within the scope of the above mentioned projects energy efficient measures have been implemented in 43 residential buildings as a result of which around 2,600 families live in upgraded and energy efficient buildings. According to the project monitoring data, as a result of the measures taken, an estimated reduction in energy consumption of up to 6% was recorded.


About Habitat for Humanity Armenia

Habitat for Humanity Armenia Foundation is the national office of Habitat for Humanity International founded on the conviction that everyone should have a decent place to live. Since 2000, through the work of Habitat Armenia, more than 8,300 low- and middle -income families have found new hope in the form of affordable housing. Habitat Armenia has a key role in affordable housing by helping to institutionalize energy efficiency in the country. By partnering with financial institutions, local municipalities, as well as international organizations, homeowner associations and tenants of residential buildings, Habitat Armenia implements substantial sustainable energy projects in residential sector. Through financial support, volunteering or adding a voice to support affordable housing, everyone can help families achieve the strength, stability and self-reliance they need to build better lives for themselves.

To learn more about REELIH project in Armenia, click here.
To learn more about Habitat Armenia, visit www.habitat.am

About “Agroleasing Leasing Credit Company

"Agroleasing Leasing Credit Organization" LLC was established in 1999, and in 2003 it was re-registered in the Central Bank of Armenia, receiving a license for leasing and lending activities. The main directions of Agroleasing Leasing Credit Company’s activities are financing of agriculture, food processing organizations, individuals, entrepreneurs, as well as energy efficient projects. The organization has funded start-up food processing entrepreneurs who currently hold leading positions in Armenia, and the implemented programs have contributed to the creation of about 5,000 new jobs.

To learn more, visit www.agroleasing.am

Written by Seda Arzumanyan, Habitat for Humanity Armenia

HFH Armenia is implementing Access to Renewable and Efficient Energy in Municipalities Vayk and Spitak (AREEM) project funded by the European Union. The project is implemented in consortium with Spitak and Vayk Municipalities for a period of four years from December 2014 to December 2018.

More than half of Armenians live in collective residential housing units (429,512 units).  Three out of four units were built in the period from 1951 to 1990. Residential heating accounts for more than 30 percent of energy usage in Armenia, as previous construction technologies and heating methods did not focus on energy efficient mechanisms. There is lack of access and knowledge in application of renewable energy sources.  It is important to address the problems of residential energy efficiency because it can help to move forward on the road to energy reforms and can limit energy waste, which will reduce air pollution and emissions and help cope with climate change. Usage of renewable energy will decrease CO2 emissions.

The overall objective of the project is to support Spitak and Vayk municipalities to develop and test replicable and efficient models of energy saving through use of efficient measures and renewable sources in residential and public buildings that are incorporated in their Sustainable Energy Action Plans aligned with the Covenant of Mayors requirements. By December 2018, HFH Armenia will have decreased/saved energy use by implementing energy saving measures in the selected residential and public buildings through public awareness and knowledge sharing initiatives in Spitak and Vayq municipalities and will have created access and increase the use of renewable energy sources for courtyards and entrances lighting, hot water for selected residential and public buildings in Spitak and Vayq towns.

Within the framework of the AREEM project energy saving and efficient measures will be implemented, such as upgrades and insulation of roofs, doors and windows and/or building enveloping in 45 residential buildings (27 in Spitak and 18 in Vayk) and Culture House in Vayk. 145 pieces of photovoltaic solar panels will be installed for addressing lighting system upgrades for entrances, staircases and courtyards of selected residential buildings. Hot water will be provided through installation of solar water heaters of 65m2 and photovoltaic solar panels of 160 m2 will be installed for generating energy and using hot water for heating the swimming pool for the kids in the Spitak kindergarten. Knowledge sharing community forums will be facilitated among Spitak and Vayk municipalities and tenants will periodically discuss energy saving and efficiency issues and find solutions to replicate within their individual housing units, buildings and communities.

The AREEM project is implemented in consortium with Vayk and Spitak municipalities. Both municipalities have signed the Covenant of Mayors in 2014 supported by European Union and have committed to the implementation of the Sustainable Energy Action Plans in their communities, thus reducing 20% of CO2 emissions by 2020.

Seda Arzumanyan, MA in Social Work joined Habitat for Humanity Armenia team in 2008. Currently she serves as Fundraising Consultant. She is responsible for Fundraising of the organization. Seda has 7 years of progressive management experience and repeated success in developing social project initiatives, directing project plans and achieving revenue performance targets, as well with more than 3 years of Fundraising, Marketing, Volunteer management and Communications successful experience. She has planned and successfully implemented more than major 5 events (Press Conferences; Conferences, Trainings, Volunteer builds; Armenian Diaspora Receptions, Presentation meetings, etc.) in the US and more than 50 Public, Fundraising and Media events in Armenia; hosted more than 20 international volunteer teams. She has gained “Advanced Proposal Writing” certificate by Education for Go institution.

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